What are the Causes of Electrical Loss in EV Charging Piles?

This article will give you a detailed understanding of the reasons why EV charging piles produce power loss, and will also explain in detail the specific factors that cause losses during operation of charging piles.

EV Charging Piles

Introduction

EV charging piles electrical loss refers to the phenomenon where the amount of electricity consumed by the EV charging piles during the charging process exceeds the actual amount of electricity charged into the electric vehicle (EV) due to factors such as equipment and environmental conditions, resulting in energy wastage. 

The calculation method for EV charging piles electrical loss rate is (electricity consumed by charging pile – actually charged electricity) / electricity consumed by charging pile.

The losses of EV charging pile can be categorized into standby losses and operating losses. When the charging pile is in standby mode, electricity is consumed by devices such as transformers, charging piles, and lighting, resulting in losses. 

During the operation of EV charging pile, if you are using an alternating current (AC) EV charging pile, the electrical losses mainly come from the rectification losses of the vehicle-mounted charger, losses from the battery and heating dissipation system, and heating of the gun cable. 

If you are using a direct current (DC) EV charging pile, the losses mainly come from the conversion losses of the charging pile module, losses from the battery and heating dissipation system, and heating of the gun cable. DC charging involves significant energy conversion and voltage drop factors during the charging process, resulting in a higher electrical loss rate compared to AC charging piles.

3 phase ev charger
1 Phase EV Charger

Causes of loss during EV charging piles operation

Specific reasons for electrical losses during the operation of EV charging piles include:

Improper user usage

Vehicle energy consumption: Using air conditioning, lighting, entertainment systems, etc., during charging consumes some of the battery’s energy, leading to prolonged charging time and energy loss.

Use of mismatched components: Using incompatible or mismatched components in the charging system sometimes leads to inefficiency and increased losses. 

For example, using improper charging cables or not following the manufacturer’s recommendations can sometimes increase losses.

Improper operation: Behaviors such as improper parking according to requirements, frequent operations, or prolonged charging can increase power losses of the EV charging pile.

Reasons related to the EV charging pile itself

Poor quality or old/defective chargers: Poor quality and aging electrical infrastructure can lead to damage to cables, connectors, or charging equipment, increasing charging losses. In addition, charging piles produced by different manufacturers may have varying quality, and low-quality charging piles may also have more losses.

High resistance: Resistance occurs when current passes through wires, and the energy generated by resistance is converted into heat, resulting in losses in the internal circuits of the EV charging pile. Longer cables or poor-quality cables can result in higher resistance, reducing energy transmission efficiency and increasing power losses. Additionally, loose connections or corrosion inside the charging station can increase resistance, leading to energy loss in the form of heat.

Other external factors

Poor environmental conditions: Extreme temperatures, humidity, and other environmental conditions affect the performance of electrical components of EV charging piles. 

For example, the Battery Management System (BMS) may limit the charging rate to protect the battery from damage caused by extreme temperatures, resulting in reduced charging efficiency and increased power losses.

Unstable power grid: Factors such as ionized weather, transformer oil pollution, and aging power lines have a significant impact on the quality of the power grid. Fluctuations in grid voltage or frequency affect the performance of charging equipment, leading to increased power losses. High demand periods or insufficient power supply from the transformer at the charging station can also result in slow charging and energy loss.

Peak demand periods: During peak demand periods, increased usage of electric car charging piles and increased pressure on the power system sometimes lead to higher losses.

Improper management: Lack of regular maintenance and inspection sometimes leads to performance degradation and increased power losses.

Poor charging status of batteries: The output voltage and current of electric vehicle charging piles vary with the charging status of the battery being charged. If the battery’s charging status is poor, the output voltage and current of the charging pile will be relatively high, leading to internal circuit losses.

These factors collectively contribute to the electrical losses experienced during the operation of EV charging piles.

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